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GLOSSARY

ActiveX ActiveX Controls API
Windows API Control COM
DAO Data Source Database
Database Engine DBMS Database Replication
Deadlock Design Time Device Context
DLL Dynaset Event
Foreign Key Form MDI Form
MDI Meta Data Meta File
Microsoft Jet Database Microsoft Jet Database Engine Null
ODBC ODBC Data Source ODBC Driver
ODBC Direct OLE Object
One-to-Many Relationship One-to-One Relationship Primary key
Procedure Property
Record Source
Referential Integrity RDC RDO
Resource File SDI Table
Snapshot Transaction Validation Rule
Variable Variant Data Type HTML
Dhtml Web browser WWW
HTTP Hypertext Hyperlink
Download FTP TCP-IP
URL Web Page Home Page
Web Site Internet Intranet
ISP Protocol Network
Modem Email Publish

ActiveX

Microsoft's brand name for the technologies that enable interoperability using the Component Object Model (COM). See also ActiveX terms.
The new name for programmable elements formerly known variously as OLE Controls, OCXs, or OLE Custom Controls. Controls previously built with the MFC Control Developer's Kit meet the ActiveX control specification

ActiveX control

An object that you place on a form to enable or enhance a user's interaction with an application. ActiveX controls have events and can be incorporated into other controls. These controls have an .ocx file name extension. See also ActiveX terms.

Control

An object you can place on a form that has its own set of recognized properties, methods, and events. You use controls to receive user input, display output, and trigger event procedures. You can manipulate most controls using methods. Some controls are interactive (responsive to user actions), while others are static (accessible only through code).
Controls are interactive objects that you place in dialog boxes or other windows to carry out user actions. The controls that you can use or create with Visual C++ include: Windows common controls, including those introduced with Windows 95. Additional controls available with MFC, such as bitmap buttons. ActiveX controls that you create yourself or that you obtain from control suppliers. Owner-drawn controls, for which you supply code for drawing the control and for interacting with it.

API

Application programming interface. The set of commands that an application uses to request and carry out lower-level services performed by a computer's operating system.
A set of routines that an application uses to request and carry out lower-level services performed by a computer's operating system. For computers running a graphical user interface, an API manages an application's windows, icons, menus, and dialog boxes.

Windows API

The Windows API (Application Programming Interface) consists of the functions, messages, data structures, data types, and statements you can use in creating applications that run under Microsoft Windows. The parts of the API you use most are code elements for calling API functions from Windows. These include procedure declarations (for the Windows functions), user-defined type definitions (for data structures passed to those functions), and constant declarations (for values passed to and returned from those functions).

COM

Component Object Model. An industry-standard architecture for object-oriented development. The Component Object Model defines interfaces on which ActiveX components are built.

DAO object

An object that is defined by the Data Access Objects (DAO) library. You can use DAO objects, such as the Database, TableDef, Recordset, and QueryDef objects, to represent objects that are used to organize and manipulate data, such as tables and queries, in code.

Data Access Objects (DAO)

Objects that are defined by the Microsoft Jet database engine. You use data access objects, such as the Database, TableDef, Recordset, and QueryDef objects, to represent objects that are used to organize and manipulate data in code.
A high-level set of objects that insulates developers from the physical details of reading and writing records. In a database application, for example, these objects include databases, table definitions, query definitions, fields, indexes, etc.

data source

The data the user wants to access and its associated operating system, DBMS, and network platform (if any). (created with the Type statement), and object data types, which include host-defined object data types and DAO object types. .

database

A set of data related to a particular topic or purpose. A database contains tables and can also contain queries and table relationships, as well as table and column validation criteria. .

database engine

That part of the database system that retrieves data from and stores data in user and system databases. .

database management system (DBMS)

Software used to organize, analyze, and modify information stored in a database. Microsoft SQL Server is an example of a database management system. .

database replication

The process of reproducing a database so that two or more copies (replicas) of the same database can stay synchronized. Changes to the data in a replicated table in one replica are sent and applied to the other replicas in the replica set. .

deadlock

Occurs when one user has locked a data page and tries to lock another page or row that is locked by a second user who, in turn, is trying to lock the page or row that is locked by the first user. While such occurrences are rare, the longer that a page, row, table, or file is locked, the greater the chance of a deadly embrace (an unresolved deadlock condition that blocks two or more applications). .

design time

The time during which you build an application in the development environment by adding controls, setting control or form properties, and so on. In contrast, during run time, you interact with the application as a user would. .

device context

A link between a Windows-based application, a device driver, and an output device such as a display, printer, or plotter. .
A data structure defining the graphic objects, their associated attributes, and the graphic modes affecting output on a device. See also graphic object, metafile. .
A device context is a windows data structure, which stores in itself the set of routines (methods) work able on an output device such as the screen or printer. CDC class which makes accessible the device context to show data on screen. CDC device context class for a client window provides the methods .

DLL (dynamic-link library)

A set of routines that can be called from procedures and are loaded in process and linked into your application at run time. A library of routines loaded and linked to applications at run time. .
dynaset A type of Recordset object that returns a dynamic set of pointers to live database data. Like a table- or a snapshot-type Recordset, a dynaset returns data in records (rows) and fields (columns). Unlike a table-type Recordset, a dynaset-type Recordset can be the result of a query that joins two or more tables. The records in a dynaset-type Recordset object are updatable if the Updatable property of the Recordset is True, the Field being changed is updatable, and the data page containing the current record isn't locked. The data page is locked when the Update method is used (when the LockEdits property is False), or the Edit method is used (when the LockEdits property is True). .

event

An action recognized by an object, such as clicking the mouse or pressing a key, and for which you can write code to respond. Events can occur as a result of a user action or program code, or they can be triggered by the system. .

foreign key

One or more table fields that refer to the primary key field or fields in another table. A foreign key indicates how the tables are related the data in the foreign key and primary key fields must match. For example, a list of valid part numbers would contain a foreign key to an inventory table containing references to valid part numbers. Used when establishing referential integrity for a database. .
form A window or dialog box. Forms are containers for controls. A multiple-document interface (MDI) form can also act as a container for child forms and some controls. .

MDI form

A window that makes up the background of a multiple-document interface (MDI) application. The MDI form is the container for any MDI child forms in the application. .

multiple document interface (MDI)

An application that can support multiple documents from one application instance. MDI object applications can simultaneously service a user and one or more embedding containers. .
The standard user-interface architecture for Windows-based applications. A multiple document interface application enables the user to work with more than one document at the same time. Each document is displayed within the client area of the application's main window. See also child window, client area, single document interface (SDI). .

meta data

Data that contains information about the structure, composition, or schema of other data. Result set data that describes the result set, such as number of columns in the result set, data types of those columns, and so forth. .

metafile

A file that stores an image as graphical objects such as lines, circles, and polygons rather than as pixels. There are two types of metafiles, standard and enhanced. Standard metafiles usually have a .wmf file name extension. Enhanced metafiles usually have a .emf file name extension. Metafiles preserve an image more accurately than pixels when the image is resized. .

Microsoft Jet-connected ODBC data source

An ODBC data source that is accessed by using Data Access Objects (DAO) and the Microsoft Jet database engine. .

Microsoft Jet database

A database created with the Microsoft Jet database engine. The file name extension for a Microsoft Jet database is .mdb. .

Microsoft Jet database engine

A database management system that retrieves data from and stores data in user and system databases. The Microsoft Jet database engine can be thought of as a data manager component with which other data access systems, such as Microsoft Access and Visual Basic, are built. .

Null

A value that indicates missing or unknown data. Null values can be entered in fields for which information is unknown and in expressions and queries. In Visual Basic, the Null keyword indicates a Null value. Some fields, such as those defined as containing the primary key, can't contain Null values. .

ODBC (Open Database Connectivity)

A standard protocol that permits applications to connect to a variety of external database servers or files. ODBC drivers used by the ODBC driver manager permit access to SQL Server and several other data sources, including text files and Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The ODBC application programming interface (API) may also be used to access ODBC drivers and the databases they connect to without using the Microsoft Jet database engine. .
An open, vendor-neutral interface for database connectivity that provides access to a variety of personal computer, minicomputer, and mainframe systems, including Windows-based systems and the Apple Macintosh. The ODBC interface permits an application developer to develop, compile, and ship an application without targeting a specific database management system (DBMS). Users can add modules called database drivers that link the application to their choice of database management systems.

ODBC data source

A term used to refer to a database or database server used as a source of data. ODBC data sources are referred to by their Data Source Name (DSN). Data sources can be created by using the Windows Control Panel or the RegisterDatabase or rdoRegisterDataSource method. .

ODBC driver

A dynamic-link library (.dll) used to connect a specific Open Database Connectivity data source with another (client) application. .

ODBCDirect

A technology that allows you to access ODBC data sources directly by using DAO features that bypass the Microsoft Jet database engine and map DAO objects to RDO objects. .

OLE

Object linking and embedding. A special case of ActiveX that enables you to create applications that contain components from various other applications.

object

1. Generally, an instance of an entity that embodies both specific data and the functions that manipulate it.
2. Specifically in object-oriented programming, an object is an entity that has state, behavior and identity. An object's state consists of its attributes and the attributes' current values. An object's behavior consists of the operations that can be performed on it and the accompanying state changes. An object's identity is what you use to distinguish it from other objects. In contrast, COM objects' behavior is defined by the interfaces it supports. A COM object's state is not explicitly specified, but is implied by its interfaces. A COM object's identity is defined by the ability to use IUnknown::QueryInterface to move between interfaces.
A combination of code and data that can be treated as a unit, for example, a control, form, or application component. Each object is defined by a class.

one-to-many relationship

An association between two tables in which: The primary key value of each record in the primary table corresponds to the value in the matching field or fields of many records in the related table. The primary key value of each record in the related table corresponds to the value in the matching field or fields of one and only one record in the primary table. .

one-to-one relationship

An association between two tables in which: The primary key value of each record in the primary table corresponds to the value in the matching field or fields of one and only one record in the related table. The primary key value of each record in the related table corresponds to the value in the matching field or fields of one and only one record in the primary table. .

primary key

One or more fields whose value or values uniquely identify each record in a table. In a relationship, a primary key is used to refer to specific records in one table from another table. A primary key is called a foreign key when it is referred to from another table. You can have only one primary key. An Employees table, for example, could use the social security number for the primary key. .

procedure

A named sequence of statements executed as a unit. For example, Function, Property, and Sub are types of procedures. A procedure name is always defined at module level. All executable code must be contained in a procedure. Procedures can't be nested within other procedures. .

property

A named attribute of an object. Properties define object characteristics such as size, color, and screen location, or the state of an object, such as enabled or disabled. .

record source

The underlying source of data (a table, query, or SQL statement) for a form or report. .

referential integrity

Rules that you set to establish and preserve relationships between tables when you add, change, or delete records. Enforcing referential integrity prohibits users from adding records to a joined table for which there is no primary key, changing values in a primary table that would result in orphaned records in a joined table, and deleting records from a primary table when there are matching related records. .

RemoteData control

Provides access to data stored in a remote ODBC data source. The RemoteData control allows you to move from row to row in a result set and to display and manipulate data from the rows using bound controls. .

Remote Data Objects (RDO)

Provide an information model for accessing remote data sources through ODBC. RDO offers a set of objects that make it easy to connect to a database, execute queries and stored procedures, manipulate results, and commit changes to the server. .
An object, such as rdoConnection, rdoTable, rdoResultset, or rdoQuery, that represents an object used to organize and manipulate data in code. .

resource file

A file in a Visual Basic project with an .res file name extension that can contain bitmaps, text strings, or other data. By storing this data in a separate file, you can change the information without editing your code. Only one resource file can be associated with a project. .

single document interface (SDI)

An application that can support only one document at a time. Multiple instances of an SDI application must be started to service both an embedded object and a user. .
A user interface architecture that allows a user to work with just one document at a time. Windows Notepad is an example of an SDI application. See also multiple document interface (MDI). .

table

The basic unit of data storage in a relational database. A table stores data in records (rows) and fields (columns) and is usually about a particular category of things, such as employees or parts. Also called a base table. A table-type Recordset is a logical representation of a base table in a database. .

dynaset

A type of Recordset object that returns a dynamic set of pointers to live database data. Like a table- or a snapshot-type Recordset, a dynaset returns data in records (rows) and fields (columns). Unlike a table-type Recordset, a dynaset-type Recordset can be the result of a query that joins two or more tables. The records in a dynaset-type Recordset object are updatable if the Updatable property of the Recordset is True, the Field being changed is updatable, and the data page containing the current record isn't locked. The data page is locked when the Update method is used (when the LockEdits property is False), or the Edit method is used (when the LockEdits property is True). .

snapshot

A fixed copy of a set of records retrieved from the database and copied into memory. A snapshot derived from a Microsoft Jet-connected data source can't be updated. Snapshot-type Recordset objects can be created from a base table, a query, or another Recordset. All SQL pass-through queries return snapshots. .

transaction

A unit of work that is done as an atomic operation - that is, the operation succeeds or fails as a whole. .

validation rule

A rule that sets limits or conditions on what can be entered in one or more fields. Validation rules can be set for a Field or TableDef object. Validation rules are checked when you update a record containing fields requiring validation. If the rule is violated, a trappable error results. .

variable

A named storage location that can contain data that can be modified during program execution. Each variable has a name that uniquely identifies it within its scope. A data type can be specified or not. Variable names must begin with an alphabetic character, must be unique within the same scope, can't be longer than 255 characters, and can't contain an embedded period or type-declaration character. .

Variant data type

A special data type that can contain numeric, string, or date data as well as the special values Empty and Null. The Variant data type has a numeric storage size of 16 bytes and can contain data up to the range of a Decimal, or a character storage size of 22 bytes (plus string length), and can store any character text. The VarType function defines how the data in a Variant is treated. All variables become Variant data types if not explicitly declared as some other data type. .

HTML:

HTML is the language used to create Web pages that can be read by Web browsers.
HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language, the standard for describing the contents and appearance of pages on the World Wide Web. HTML consists of pairs of opening and closing tags, with attributes and values in between. The tags describe each element on a Web page, such as a paragraph of text, a table, or an image.
HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the standard language for describing the contents and structure of pages on the World Wide Web.
World Wide Web browsers use hypertext to access and display information available on the World Wide Web. Hypertext is text that incorporates pointers to additional information. Microsoft Windows "Help" files are examples of hypertext documents. The hypertext documents used by World Wide Web browsers are ordinary text files that include special markings that tell the browser software something about how the text should appear to the user, as well as how to retrieve information when the user requests it. The language, or code, used for these special markings is "Hypertext Markup Language", abbreviated as "HTML".

DHTML

Dynamic HTML (DHTML) is a Microsoft enhancement to HTML version 4.0 that lets you create special effects, such as text that flies off the page one word at a time, or rotating billboard-style transition effects between pages.
(DHTML) An extension of the HTML language that enables the creation of presentation effects for text and objects. In FrontPage, you can use the DHTML Effects toolbar to add effects to page elements without the need to know programming.

Web Browser:

An Internet Browser is a computer program that allows you to view pages, images and multimedia available on the World Wide Web (WWW). The two most popular are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. This is the software that allows a user to view HTML documents (In other words, surf the net). Examples of Web browsers include Netscape, Mosaic, Internet Explorer and Lynx. A Web browser is your window to the Internet. The browser reads the HTML code in the Web document and translates the code into the final product. The page appears as the author intended it to, with text, graphics and hypertext jumps to other Web Pages.

WWW

The collection of all servers that make Web content available on the Internet.
The graphical Internet hypertext service that uses the HTTP protocol to retrieve World Wide Web pages and other data from World Wide Web servers. Pages on the World Wide Web usually contain hyperlinks to other pages or to multimedia files.
People usually interact with the part of the Internet called the World Wide Web (WWW or the Web). The line between the Web and the Internet is somewhat blurry, and the two terms are often used interchangeably. Basically, the Web is a subpart of the Internet with the capacity to handle multimedia (text, graphic, video and sound) information. The Web consists of documents stored on computers around the world that people around the world can access who want to view them. These documents are called Web pages. (Also referred to as Home pages, Web documents, and Web sites.)
The total set of interlinked hypertext documents residing on HTTP servers all over the world. Documents on the World Wide Web are called pages or Web pages, which are written in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). Web pages are identified by URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) that specify the particular computer and path name by which a file can be accessed, and transmitted from node to node to the end user under HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). Web pages may contain text in a variety of fonts and styles, pictures, graphics, movie clips, sounds, as well as small, embedded software programs that are executed when a site visitor activates them by clicking a hyperlink. Site visitors may also be able to download files and send messages to other users via e-mail by using links on a Web page. The World Wide Web was developed by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 for the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN).

HTTP

The abbreviation for Hypertext Transfer Protocol is HTTP is being used as the communication protocol to transport hypertext documents over the internet.

Hypertext

Originally, any textual information on a computer containing jumps to other information. The hypertext jumps are called hyperlinks. On the World Wide Web, hypertext is the primary way to navigate between pages and among Web sites. Hypertext on Web pages has been expanded to include hyperlinks from text, from a picture or a graphic, and from image maps.
Any document that can guide a user through a path of steps using clickable links is a hypertext document The links are called hypertext links. Clearly web pages are hypertext documents, but this help file also qualifies. Now days, a hypertext document almost always refers to a web page. Within a Web page, an author can define words or images to be linked to other Web pages including pages within their own document. When readers click on the word or image, they jump directly to the Web page specified by the author. These jumps are called hypertext.

Hyperlink

A pointer from text, from a picture or a graphic, or from an image map to a page or file on the World Wide Web. On the World Wide Web, hyperlinks are the primary way to navigate between pages and among Web sites. Also called link.

Download

If you ever transfer files from a server to your local computer using any method (such as FTP), then you have downloaded that file.

FTP

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the Internet service that transfers files from one computer to another.

TCP-IP or TCP/IP

Have you ever wondered exactly how all the computers talk to each other over the Internet? TCP-IP stands for "transmission control protocol/Internet protocol" and all computers on the net must speak it. TCP-IP has always been the standard language used by UNIX machines to talk to each other and as it was UNIX machines that started the Internet all computers connecting to the Net must speak it. Versions of TCP/IP are now available for all major operating systems.

URL

A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is the address system used on the web. Each URL is unique, identifying a particular file or point on the internet. It consists of a string that supplies the Internet address of a resource on the World Wide Web along with the protocol by which the resource is accessed. The most common URL type is "http" which gives the Internet address of a World Wide Web page. Some other URL types are "gopher" which gives the Internet address of a Gopher directory, and "ftp" which gives the address of an FTP resource. "URL" is an abbreviation for "Uniform Resource Locator". URLs are the pointers to information to be retrieved when a hypertext link is activated by the user. They tell the browser how the information is to be obtained and where it is located. URLs enable a single WWW browser program to incorporate many of the functions that normally require several other software packages, including FTP, news, Email and gopher. In order to be able to locate Web pages on other computers, each computer and each document on that computer has an address. Much like your area code and telephone number identifies your region, and then your location, the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of a Web page identifies a computer and the document you are looking for. When you publish your Web document on the Internet, you will be assigned a URL. (Most likely, your Internet service provider will give you a URL.) You will use the URL when telling other people how to locate your Web document. If the authors of another Web document would like to include a jump to your Web page, they would identify your URL as a hypertext jump.

Web Page

Web pages are documents that can be viewed and interacted with over the Internet. They can contain text, graphics, and links to other Web pages.
An HTML document that is accessible on the Web. For example, your home page is a Web page.

Home Page

On the World Wide Web, an entry page for a set of Web pages and other files in a Web site. The home page is displayed by default when a visitor surfs to the site using a Web browser. The name of a home page depends on the type of Web server used to host the Web site. Some Web servers reserve Index.htm as the name for the home page, while others name the home page Default.htm.

Web Site

A Web site is a collection of Web pages connected together with hypertext links so that each page is associated with the others.

Internet

The Internet is a network connecting individual computers and computer networks worldwide. The word Internet means a network of networks. Information is shared and exchanged from computer to computer using agreed-upon communications protocols. The Internet includes the World Wide Web, electronic mail (e-mail), mailing lists, newsgroups, and the transfer of files and information using File Transfer Protocol (FTP). The Internet is basically a vehicle for transferring information from one computer to the next. The Internet is a vast resource of information and is expanding every day. You can use it like a library to find information on a variety of topics. There are many ways to find and exchange information using the Internet. Here are some examples:
Electronic mail (e-mail). Using specific addresses that identify individual users, e-mail messages are sent from one computer connected to the Internet to another and stored until they are read.
Mailing Lists. An automated service that sends a message from one mailing list member to all other mailing list members. This type of service is called LISTSERV
Newsgroups. Centering on a topic of discussion, newsgroups are forums for people to exchange information. News items are posted on a server, and available for other members to read at any time.
Search engines. To find information on the Internet, you can request a search from any one of the many search engines available. You will receive a list of all known Web pages that contain the information you requested a search for.
Transferring files. You can download software and other documents using File Transfer Protocol (FTP). FTP is an agreed-upon protocol for exchanging information via the Internet.

Intranet

A network designed for information processing within a company or organization. Its uses include such services as document and software distribution, access to databases, and training. An intranet is so called because it usually employs applications associated with the Internet, such as Web pages, Web browsers, FTP sites, e-mail, newsgroups, and mailing lists, accessible only to those within the organization. See also firewall. IP

ISP

A company that provides dial-up connections to the internet.
Much like a telephone company provides long-distance service, an Internet service provider provides the service of a connection to the Internet. For a monthly fee, an Internet service provider allows you to send and receive information from your computer to their computer, which is connected to the Internet, using a modem.
A business that supplies Internet connectivity services to individuals, businesses, and other organizations. Some ISPs are large national or multinational corporations that offer access in many locations, while others are limited to a specific city or region.

Protocol

The specifications that define procedures used by computers when they transmit and receive data.In other words,the rules by which computers communicate.
An established communication method that the parties involved understand, Protocols provide context in which to interpret communicated information.Computer Protocols are rules used by communicating devices and software services to format data in a way that all participants understand.

Network

A group of computers and other devices connected together is called a network.

Modem

A device that converts the digital communications of a computer into analog signals that can be carried over a regular telephone line.

Email

(electronic mail) The exchange of electronic text messages and computer file attachments between computers over a communications network, such as a local area network or the Internet.

Publish

The process of making a web public on the World Wide Web or an intranet by copying all of its pages and files to the Web server connected to the Internet or the local area network.




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